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Poll Manager

Poll Results:  Is Protesting While At Work on Company Time Ok?

Yes, It is now ok for anyone to protest while they are on company time even if it hurts the revenues of the company!   64.3% 64.3 % (347)
No, Anyone has the right to exercise their First Amendment rights but not while they are on the job.   35.7% 35.7 % (193)


Total Votes: 540

Comments - Make a comment
The comments are owned by the poster. We are not responsible for its content. We value free speech but remember this is a public forum and we hope that people would use common sense and decency. If you see an offensive comment please email us at news@thepinetree.net
No Subject
Posted on: 2017-09-24 22:45:39   By: Anonymous
 
Thank you PineTree! I have been watching news all weekend and wondering why no one asked this question. This isn't about free speech or even if we need to make changes in race relations (of course we do) it is about why do employees of NFL teams think it is ok for them to protest on company time and damage the very businesses that employ them.

[Reply ]

    Re:
    Posted on: 2017-09-25 06:23:17   By: Anonymous
     
    People can't be forced to salute or take oaths even if they are at work.

    [Reply ]

      Re:
      Posted on: 2017-09-25 08:26:53   By: Anonymous
       
      This is my view too. The protesting NFL players are not doing anything active but are simply choosing not to stand for a jingoistic singing event. The Supreme Court has ruled that students can not be forced to say the Pledge of Allig1ance; this seems similar to me.

      NFL players are using their place in the national spotlight to call attention to a real problem, the continuing discrimination against people of color. The fact that most of them are very rich black men does not in any way negate the facts that discrimination and racial injustice remain huge problems in the US. I commend them for their own achievements that earned them a place in the spotlight and commend them again for taking action on behalf of millions who have no spotlight.

      I also think NFL owners (of teams, not men) can take players' behavior into account in hiring decisions. What we saw yesterday is that most owners support their players and their players' choice of peaceful protest. But Kapernick (sp?) still doesn't have a job. The players are clearly taking some risk in protesting.

      Viewers also have a choice. Obviously.

      I find it especially distasteful that Trump wraps himself in the flag on this issue and yet dodged the draft during the Vietnam war and has insulted both John McCain and a Gold star family. Trump's only allegiance is to himself.

      [Reply ]

        Re:
        Posted on: 2017-09-25 21:14:26   By: Anonymous
          Edited By: thepinetree
        On: 2017-09-27 14:33:13


        [Reply ]

          Re:
          Posted on: 2017-09-30 08:24:50   By: Anonymous
           
          o all the players around the NFL who have joined one another in protest, I would just say this: Do what you feel is right. But please try to remember that when you make your point in front of that red, white, and blue flag, you’re also forcing me—as well as so many of your fellow Americans—to think, consider the feelings of others, and act like a human being.

          [Reply ]

        Re:
        Posted on: 2017-09-25 21:14:26   By: Anonymous
         

        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.
















































































































        these nfl niggars ain't protestin the flag. dey is protestin duh police killing their brothers.

















































































































        [Reply ]

          Re:
          Posted on: 2017-09-26 19:40:37   By: Anonymous
           
          Typical liberal argument. Nothing between his ears.

          [Reply ]

        Re:
        Posted on: 2017-09-26 05:36:50   By: Anonymous
         
        Your freedom of speech also allows you to swear at a nun. I would never do this because it could be offensive to someone. Likewise, I have taken offense to the NFL's disrespect. I will no longer watch.

        [Reply ]

          Re:
          Posted on: 2017-09-26 19:50:58   By: Anonymous
           
          Agreed. It's all about being offensive. The left has now created laws if you don't address someone by their proper pronoun (ze, hir, etc.) you will be fined heavily. Tough for us if you are “gender-fluid”. We don't want to hurt their feelings after all. Yet, if you burn our flag, kneel down during the anthem, etc., our feelings don't seem to matter.

          [Reply ]

            Re:
            Posted on: 2017-09-27 15:54:37   By: Anonymous
             
            You are such a victim. Poor you.

            BTW, none of what you wrote is true. No one cares if your use of pronouns is rude or not PC. Get over yourself and your poor oppressed white maleness. Being a martyr for pronouns is unbecoming.

            [Reply ]

              Re:
              Posted on: 2017-09-29 21:06:00   By: Anonymous
               
              says the little snowflake twit.

              [Reply ]

        Re:
        Posted on: 2017-09-26 13:38:03   By: Anonymous
         
        The point here is that "respect" has been lost in America. That goes for our President who should behave like a gentleman and many citizens as well. America has become uncivilized. Very sad indeed.

        [Reply ]

    Re:
    Posted on: 2017-09-30 08:24:21   By: Anonymous
     
    o all the players around the NFL who have joined one another in protest, I would just say this: Do what you feel is right. But please try to remember that when you make your point in front of that red, white, and blue flag, you’re also forcing me—as well as so many of your fellow Americans—to think, consider the feelings of others, and act like a human being.

    [Reply ]

You're Fired!!!
Posted on: 2017-09-25 04:54:29   By: Anonymous
 
If you take anything away from your employer by protesting on company time you should be fired!!

[Reply ]

    Re: You're Fired!!!
    Posted on: 2017-09-25 08:31:15   By: Anonymous
     
    If an owner fires players necessary for the success of his business, he should expect his business to fail. This is why player solidarity was so important. No owner will fire the entire offensive line as the owner of the Raiders would have to do if he were stupid enough to follow your advice.

    [Reply ]

      Re: You're Fired!!!
      Posted on: 2017-09-25 13:54:41   By: Anonymous
       
      Sorry Einstein but letting the inmates run the asylum is a recipe for disaster.

      [Reply ]

        Re: You're Fired!!!
        Posted on: 2017-09-25 14:31:52   By: Anonymous
         
        Not running a business, are you?

        [Reply ]

          Re: You're Fired!!!
          Posted on: 2017-09-25 15:29:52   By: Anonymous
           
          Look who's doing all of the protesting , that says it all . Poor , poor me , been put down for years , wah wah .

          [Reply ]

            Re: You're Fired!!!
            Posted on: 2017-09-26 14:56:23   By: Anonymous
             
            LOL. The biggest whiner in the country is Trump. The media is so unfair. I inherited such tough problems. McConnell can't get it done. No one loves me. Well, he's right about the last one.

            The biggest group of whiners is Trump voters. Wah wah. Other people are getting more than me. The country is not all white anymore. Wah wah wah.

            [Reply ]

          Re: You're Fired!!!
          Posted on: 2017-09-26 12:09:44   By: Anonymous
           
          and, and... I'm just slightly overpaid ...only making $14, 000,000
          a year...it's just not fair wah wah wah

          [Reply ]

NFL sucks!
Posted on: 2017-09-25 18:13:23   By: Anonymous
 
NFL has become the Academy Awards, etc. I'm tired of watching these pansies! I am switching to NASCAR! At least they are Americans!

P.S. Yahoo won't let me post this comment as it is considered to be against their "guidelines".

[Reply ]

Pajama Boys in Safe Spaces.
Posted on: 2017-09-25 18:27:59   By: Anonymous
 
protesting is for meanies!

[Reply ]

American Hero
Posted on: 2017-09-25 18:57:19   By: Anonymous
 
Alejandro Villanueva is a real American Hero!

[Reply ]

    Re: American Hero
    Posted on: 2017-09-25 19:06:04   By: Anonymous
     
    It's time this country stands up for what it believes rather than what we are forced to believe. Obama sure split the nation from people being equal to people having a special label or class.

    [Reply ]

      Re: American Hero
      Posted on: 2017-09-25 19:53:56   By: Anonymous
       
      Haha. Sure... Bring Obama into this.
      That'll make you feel better

      Oh and btw, the employer is backing the employees in this situation.
      Completely lame question.

      Settle down butthurt snowflakes.


      [Reply ]

        Re: American Hero
        Posted on: 2017-09-25 20:57:36   By: Anonymous
         
        Exactly. This is just the political correctness of the right. Go find a safe space snowflakes. Boo hoo. It hurts your feelings to see someone take a knee. Jesus what a bunch of babies! It certainly didn't rankle your gentle patriotic hearts when Trump was attacking POWs. Spare us the crocodile tears -- there's a lot more of this protest to come.

        [Reply ]

          Re: American Hero
          Posted on: 2017-09-25 21:15:14   By: Anonymous
            Edited By: thepinetree
          On: 2017-09-27 14:32:22


          [Reply ]

            Re: Scrolling Genius!
            Posted on: 2017-09-26 07:53:32   By: Anonymous
             
            What's with da hillbilly BS you ignorant slut?

            [Reply ]

              Re: Scrolling Genius!
              Posted on: 2017-09-26 13:25:16   By: Anonymous
               






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































              f-u-c-k my ass, please!


              [Reply ]

                Re: Scrolling Genius!
                Posted on: 2017-09-26 19:52:28   By: Anonymous
                 
                Keep smoking that pot. I've watched your IQ greatly develop over the years of your posting....or you could finally get a job.

                [Reply ]

          Re: American Hero
          Posted on: 2017-09-26 19:54:50   By: Anonymous
           
          You've never served have you? You wouldn't know.

          [Reply ]

No Subject
Posted on: 2017-09-27 12:00:30   By: Anonymous
 
Anytime you take more than a 10 min crap while at work you're protesting in your own special way.

[Reply ]

Thirtieth
Posted on: 2017-09-27 23:30:12   By: Anonymous
 
post.

[Reply ]

NFL protesting
Posted on: 2017-09-29 06:38:59   By: Anonymous
 
The NFL players are there to entertain us & play football, they are not there to educate us. 95% of them doing it now don't even know why!
& the rest do it for attention . Just like kapernick . He never even did it for
Inequality, in my opinion..he did it to become relevant again.
His career was waning, & he needed his ego boosted. He has ruined football for this fan!

[Reply ]

    Re: NFL protesting
    Posted on: 2017-09-30 08:31:43   By: Anonymous
     
    This is way bigger than one guy's career. The awareness of inequality has been rising for a long time, and athletes express it best, because you'd think by us giving them all that money they would be happy. And yet, they aren't. Because some things are more important than money.

    [Reply ]

Not here just to entertain you
Posted on: 2017-09-29 10:02:59   By: Anonymous
 
I think the key point is that the old rich white boys just want athletes to shut up and entertain them. They don't care if the athletes are not given equal protection in society. They don't want to hear about it, or be reminded of it in anyway. Just give them money to go away with their problems!

[Reply ]

    Re: Not here just to entertain you
    Posted on: 2017-09-29 12:37:50   By: Anonymous
     




























































    jus tell dem coloreds to play ball

    [Reply ]

    Re: Not here just to entertain you
    Posted on: 2017-09-29 21:21:36   By: Anonymous
     
    "They don't care if the athletes are not given equal protection in society."
    What the f are you talking about. These spoiled little pansies are treated with kid gloves and are paid millions to play a game.Fans pay hundreds and in some cases thousands of $ to watch the game and be entertained for about four hours. A four hour escape from their daily 8+ hour grind all year long. Players shut the f up, respect the flag and those who died so that you can have your liberties, just play the game, get your millions and again shut the f up.

    [Reply ]

      jus tell dem coloreds to play ball
      Posted on: 2017-09-30 03:09:09   By: Anonymous
       









































































































































































































































































      jus tell dem coloreds to play ball

      [Reply ]

      Re: Not here just to entertain you
      Posted on: 2017-09-30 08:27:12   By: Anonymous
       
      Umm, they aren't getting their "liberties", that's the whole point. Ain't no amount of money that makes up for a society treating you like garbage.

      [Reply ]

No Subject
Posted on: 2017-10-01 12:03:24   By: Anonymous
 
You don't watch NFL for the anthem, so if you don't like the kneeling just ignore it - like you do racism and police brutality.

Poor little white GOP snowflakes.

[Reply ]

    Re:
    Posted on: 2017-10-01 18:57:44   By: Anonymous
     

















































































































    you white honkies gonna just eat sh!t...


    [Reply ]

No Subject
Posted on: 2017-10-01 23:55:10   By: Anonymous
 
One of my key tests to see if somebody is full of crap on this issue is to ask: Who wrote the song? When was it written? What do the words mean? If you can't answer those, then you don't really care about the song or what it stands for.

BTW, nobody I've talked to with strong emotions on this issue has been able to answer all three, People don't really care about this... they just want to be outraged for the fun of it. Fake outrage is the new American pastime.

[Reply ]

    Re:
    Posted on: 2017-10-02 12:35:00   By: Anonymous
     
    "The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States of America. The lyrics come from "Defence of Fort M'Henry",[2] a poem written on September 14, 1814, by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British ships of the Royal Navy in Baltimore Harbor during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the large American flag, the Star-Spangled Banner, flying triumphantly above the fort during the American victory.

    The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London. "To Anacreon in Heaven" (or "The Anacreontic Song"), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key's poem and renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", it soon became a well-known American patriotic song. With a range of one octave and one fifth (a semitone more than an octave and a half), it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today.

    "The Star-Spangled Banner" was recognized for official use by the United States Navy in 1889, and by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

    Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. "Hail, Columbia" served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", whose melody is identical to "God Save the Queen", the British national anthem,[3] also served as a de facto anthem.[4] Following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs emerged to compete for popularity at public events, among them "The Star-Spangled Banner", as well as "America the Beautiful".

    Contents

    1 Early history
    1.1 Francis Scott Key's lyrics
    1.2 John Stafford Smith's music
    1.3 National anthem
    2 Lyrics
    2.1 Additional Civil War period lyrics
    2.2 Alternative lyrics
    3 Modern history
    3.1 Performances
    3.2 200th anniversary celebrations
    3.3 Adaptations
    4 References in film, television, literature
    5 Customs
    6 Protests
    6.1 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
    6.2 2016 protests
    7 Translations
    8 Media
    9 See also
    10 References
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    12.1 Historical audio

    Early history
    Francis Scott Key's lyrics
    Francis Scott Key's original manuscript copy of his "Defence of Fort M'Henry" poem. It is now on display at the Maryland Historical Society.

    On September 3, 1814, following the Burning of Washington and the Raid on Alexandria, Francis Scott Key and John Stuart Skinner set sail from Baltimore aboard the ship HMS Minden, flying a flag of truce on a mission approved by President James Madison. Their objective was to secure an exchange of prisoners, one of whom was Dr. William Beanes, the elderly and popular town physician of Upper Marlboro and a friend of Key's who had been captured in his home. Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers. Key and Skinner boarded the British flagship HMS Tonnant on September 7 and spoke with Major General Robert Ross and Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane over dinner while the two officers discussed war plans. At first, Ross and Cochrane refused to release Beanes, but relented after Key and Skinner showed them letters written by wounded British prisoners praising Beanes and other Americans for their kind treatment.

    Because Key and Skinner had heard details of the plans for the attack on Baltimore, they were held captive until after the battle, first aboard HMS Surprise and later back on HMS Minden. After the bombardment, certain British gunboats attempted to slip past the fort and effect a landing in a cove to the west of it, but they were turned away by fire from nearby Fort Covington, the city's last line of defense.
    An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry

    During the rainy night, Key had witnessed the bombardment and observed that the fort's smaller "storm flag" continued to fly, but once the shell and Congreve rocket[5] barrage had stopped, he would not know how the battle had turned out until dawn. On the morning of September 14, the storm flag had been lowered and the larger flag had been raised.

    During the bombardment, HMS Terror and HMS Meteor provided some of the "bombs bursting in air".
    The 15-star, 15-stripe "Star-Spangled Banner" that inspired the poem

    Key was inspired by the American victory and the sight of the large American flag flying triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, had been made by Mary Young Pickersgill together with other workers in her home on Baltimore's Pratt Street. The flag later came to be known as the Star-Spangled Banner and is today on display in the National Museum of American History, a treasure of the Smithsonian Institution. It was restored in 1914 by Amelia Fowler, and again in 1998 as part of an ongoing conservation program.

    Aboard the ship the next day, Key wrote a poem on the back of a letter he had kept in his pocket. At twilight on September 16, he and Skinner were released in Baltimore. He completed the poem at the Indian Queen Hotel, where he was staying, and titled it "Defence of Fort M'Henry".

    Much of the idea of the poem, including the flag imagery and some of the wording, is derived from an earlier song by Key, also set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song". The song, known as "When the Warrior Returns",[6] was written in honor of Stephen Decatur and Charles Stewart on their return from the First Barbary War.

    Absent elaboration by Francis Scott Key prior to his death in 1843, some have speculated in modern times about the meaning of phrases or verses. According to British historian Robin Blackburn, the words "the hireling and slave" allude to the thousands of ex-slaves in the British ranks organised as the Corps of Colonial Marines, who had been liberated by the British and demanded to be placed in the battle line "where they might expect to meet their former masters."[7] Nevertheless, Professor Mark Clague, a professor of musicology at the University of Michigan, argues that the "middle two verses of Key's lyric vilify the British enemy in the War of 1812" and "in no way glorifies or celebrates slavery."[8] Clague writes that "For Key ... the British mercenaries were scoundrels and the Colonial Marines were traitors who threatened to spark a national insurrection."[8] This harshly anti-British nature of Verse 3 led to its omission in sheet music in World War I, when Britain and the U.S. were allies.[8] Responding to the assertion of writer Jon Schwarz of The Intercept that the song is a "celebration of slavery,"[9] Clague said that: "The reference to slaves is about the use, and in some sense the manipulation, of black Americans to fight for the British, with the promise of freedom. The American forces included African-Americans as well as whites. The term 'freemen,' whose heroism is celebrated in the fourth stanza, would have encompassed both."[10]

    Others suggest that "Key may have intended the phrase as a reference to the British Navy’s practice of impressment (kidnapping sailors and forcing them to fight in defense of the crown), or as a semi-metaphorical slap at the British invading force as a whole (which included a large number of mercenaries)."[11]
    John Stafford Smith's music
    Sheet music version About this sound Play (help·info)
    The memorial to John Stafford Smith in Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England

    Key gave the poem to his brother-in-law Judge Joseph H. Nicholson who saw that the words fit the popular melody "The Anacreontic Song", by English composer John Stafford Smith. This was the official song of the Anacreontic Society, an 18th-century gentlemen's club of amateur musicians in London. Nicholson took the poem to a printer in Baltimore, who anonymously made the first known broadside printing on September 17; of these, two known copies survive.

    On September 20, both the Baltimore Patriot and The American printed the song, with the note "Tune: Anacreon in Heaven". The song quickly became popular, with seventeen newspapers from Georgia to New Hampshire printing it. Soon after, Thomas Carr of the Carr Music Store in Baltimore published the words and music together under the title "The Star Spangled Banner", although it was originally called "Defence of Fort M'Henry". Thomas Carr's arrangement introduced the raised fourth which became the standard deviation from "The Anacreontic Song".[12] The song's popularity increased, and its first public performance took place in October, when Baltimore actor Ferdinand Durang sang it at Captain McCauley's tavern. Washington Irving, then editor of the Analectic Magazine in Philadelphia, reprinted the song in November 1814.

    By the early 20th century, there were various versions of the song in popular use. Seeking a singular, standard version, President Woodrow Wilson tasked the U.S. Bureau of Education with providing that official version. In response, the Bureau enlisted the help of five musicians to agree upon an arrangement. Those musicians were Walter Damrosch, Will Earhart, Arnold J. Gantvoort, Oscar Sonneck and John Philip Sousa. The standardized version that was voted upon by these five musicians premiered at Carnegie Hall on December 5, 1917, in a program that included Edward Elgar's Carillon and Gabriel Pierné's The Children's Crusade. The concert was put on by the Oratorio Society of New York and conducted by Walter Damrosch.[13] An official handwritten version of the final votes of these five men has been found and shows all five men's votes tallied, measure by measure.[14]

    The Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini used an extract of the melody in writing the aria "Dovunque al mondo..." in 1904 for his work Madama Butterfly.
    National anthem
    Commemorative plaque in Washington, D.C. marking the site at 601 Pennsylvania Avenue where "The Star-Spangled Banner" was first publicly sung
    One of two surviving copies of the 1814 broadside printing of the "Defence of Fort M'Henry", a poem that later became the lyrics of "The Star-Spangled Banner", the national anthem of the United States.

    The song gained popularity throughout the 19th century and bands played it during public events, such as July 4th celebrations.

    A plaque displayed at Fort Meade, South Dakota, claims that the idea of making "The Star Spangled Banner" the national anthem began on their parade ground in 1892. Colonel Caleb Carlton, Post Commander, established the tradition that the song be played "at retreat and at the close of parades and concerts." Carlton explained the custom to Governor Sheldon of South Dakota who "promised me that he would try to have the custom established among the state militia." Carlton wrote that after a similar discussion, Secretary of War, Daniel E. Lamont issued an order that it "be played at every Army post every evening at retreat." [15]

    In 1899, the US Navy official adopted "The Star-Spangled Banner".[16] In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson ordered that "The Star-Spangled Banner" be played at military[16] and other appropriate occasions. The playing of the song two years later during the seventh-inning stretch of Game One of the 1918 World Series, and thereafter during each game of the series is often cited as the first instance that the anthem was played at a baseball game,[17] though evidence shows that the "Star-Spangled Banner" was performed as early as 1897 at opening day ceremonies in Philadelphia and then more regularly at the Polo Grounds in New York City beginning in 1898. In any case, the tradition of performing the national anthem before every baseball game began in World War II.[18]

    On April 10, 1918, John Charles Linthicum, U.S. Congressman from Maryland, introduced a bill to officially recognize "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem.[19] The bill did not pass.[19] On April 15, 1929, Linthicum introduced the bill again, his sixth time doing so.[19] On November 3, 1929, Robert Ripley drew a panel in his syndicated cartoon, Ripley's Believe it or Not!, saying "Believe It or Not, America has no national anthem".[20]

    In 1930, Veterans of Foreign Wars started a petition for the United States to officially recognize "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem.[21] Five million people signed the petition.[21] The petition was presented to the United States House Committee on the Judiciary on January 31, 1930.[22] On the same day, Elsie Jorss-Reilley and Grace Evelyn Boudlin sang the song to the Committee to refute the perception that it was too high pitched for a typical person to sing.[23] The Committee voted in favor of sending the bill to the House floor for a vote.[24] The House of Representatives passed the bill later that year.[25] The Senate passed the bill on March 3, 1931.[25] President Herbert Hoover signed the bill on March 4, 1931, officially adopting "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem of the United States of America.[1] As currently codified, the United States Code states that "[t]he composition consisting of the words and music known as the Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem."[26]
    Lyrics

    O say can you see, by the dawn's early light,
    What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
    Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
    O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
    And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
    Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
    O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

    On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
    Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
    What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
    As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
    Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
    In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
    'Tis the star-spangled banner, O long may it wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

    And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
    That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
    A home and a country, should leave us no more?
    Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
    No refuge could save the hireling and slave
    From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
    And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave,
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

    O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
    Between their loved homes and the war's desolation.
    Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n rescued land
    Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
    Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
    And this be our motto: 'In God is our trust.'
    And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave![27]

    Cover of sheet music for "The Star-Spangled Banner", transcribed for piano by Ch. Voss, Philadelphia: G. Andre & Co., 1862
    Additional Civil War period lyrics

    In indignation over the start of the American Civil War, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.[28] added a fifth stanza to the song in 1861, which appeared in songbooks of the era.[29]

    When our land is illumined with Liberty's smile,
    If a foe from within strike a blow at her glory,
    Down, down with the traitor that dares to defile
    The flag of her stars and the page of her story!
    By the millions unchained who our birthright have gained,
    We will keep her bright blazon forever unstained!
    And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
    While the land of the free is the home of the brave.

    Alternative lyrics

    In a version hand-written by Francis Scott Key in 1840, the third line reads "Whose bright stars and broad stripes, through the clouds of the fight".[30]
    Modern history
    Main article: Performances and adaptations of The Star-Spangled Banner
    Performances

    This section may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (November 2012)
    Crowd performing the U.S. national anthem before a baseball game at Coors Field

    The song is notoriously difficult for nonprofessionals to sing because of its wide range – a 12th. Humorist Richard Armour referred to the song's difficulty in his book It All Started With Columbus.

    In an attempt to take Baltimore, the British attacked Fort McHenry, which protected the harbor. Bombs were soon bursting in air, rockets were glaring, and all in all it was a moment of great historical interest. During the bombardment, a young lawyer named Francis Off Key [sic] wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner", and when, by the dawn's early light, the British heard it sung, they fled in terror.
    — Richard Armour

    Professional and amateur singers have been known to forget the words, which is one reason the song is sometimes pre-recorded and lip-synced.[citation needed] Other times the issue is avoided by having the performer(s) play the anthem instrumentally instead of singing it. The pre-recording of the anthem has become standard practice at some ballparks, such as Boston's Fenway Park, according to the SABR publication The Fenway Project.[31]

    "The Star-Spangled Banner" is traditionally played at the beginning of public sports events and orchestral concerts in the United States, as well as other public gatherings. The National Hockey League and Major League Soccer both require venues in both the U.S. and Canada to perform both the Canadian and American national anthems at games that involve teams from both countries (with the "away" anthem being performed first) .[32][better source needed] It is also usual for both American and Canadian anthems (done in the same way as the NHL and MLS) to be played at Major League Baseball and National Basketball Association games involving the Toronto Blue Jays and the Toronto Raptors (respectively), the only Canadian teams in those two major U.S. sports leagues, and in All Star Games on the MLB, NBA, and NHL. The Buffalo Sabres of the NHL, which play in a city on the Canada–US border and have a substantial Canadian fan base, play both anthems before all home games regardless of where the visiting team is based.[33]

    Two especially unusual performances of the song took place in the immediate aftermath of the United States September 11 attacks. On September 12, 2001, the Queen broke with tradition and allowed the Band of the Coldstream Guards to perform the anthem at Buckingham Palace, London, at the ceremonial Changing of the Guard, as a gesture of support for Britain's ally.[34] The following day at a St. Paul's Cathedral memorial service, the Queen joined in the singing of the anthem, an unprecedented occurrence.[35]
    200th anniversary celebrations

    The 200th anniversary of the "Star-Spangled Banner" occurred in 2014 with various special events occurring throughout the United States. A particularly significant celebration occurred during the week of September 10–16 in and around Baltimore, Maryland. Highlights included playing of a new arrangement of the anthem arranged by John Williams and participation of President Obama on Defender's Day, September 12, 2014, at Fort McHenry.[36] In addition, the anthem bicentennial included a youth music celebration[37] including the presentation of the National Anthem Bicentennial Youth Challenge winning composition written by Noah Altshuler.
    Adaptations
    See also: The Star Spangled Banner (Whitney Houston recording)
    O'er the ramparts we watch in a 1945 United States Army Air Forces poster

    The first popular music performance of the anthem heard by the mainstream U.S. was by Puerto Rican singer and guitarist José Feliciano. He created a nationwide uproar when he strummed a slow, blues-style rendition of the song[38] at Tiger Stadium in Detroit before game five of the 1968 World Series, between Detroit and St. Louis.[39] This rendition started contemporary "Star-Spangled Banner" controversies. The response from many in the Vietnam War-era U.S. was generally negative. Despite the controversy, Feliciano's performance opened the door for the countless interpretations of the "Star-Spangled Banner" heard in the years since.[40] One week after Feliciano's performance, the anthem was in the news again when American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos lifted controversial raised fists at the 1968 Olympics while the "Star-Spangled Banner" played at a medal ceremony.

    Marvin Gaye gave a soul-influenced performance at the 1983 NBA All-Star Game and Whitney Houston gave a soulful rendition before Super Bowl XXV in 1991, which was released as a single that charted at number 20 in 1991 and number 6 in 2001 (along with José Feliciano, the only times the anthem has been on the Billboard Hot 100). In 1993, Kiss did an instrumental rock version as the closing track on their album, Alive III. Another famous instrumental interpretation is Jimi Hendrix's version, which was a set-list staple from autumn 1968 until his death in September 1970, including a famous rendition at the Woodstock music festival in 1969. Incorporating sonic effects to emphasize the "rockets' red glare", and "bombs bursting in air", it became a late-1960s emblem. Roseanne Barr gave a controversial performance of the anthem at a San Diego Padres baseball game at Jack Murphy Stadium on July 25, 1990. The comedian belted out a screechy rendition of the song, and afterward she attempted a gesture of ball players by spitting and grabbing her crotch as if adjusting a protective cup. The performance offended some, including the sitting U.S. President, George H. W. Bush.[41] Sufjan Stevens has frequently performed the "Star-Spangled Banner" in live sets, replacing the optimism in the end of the first verse with a new coda that alludes to the divisive state of the nation today. David Lee Roth both referenced parts of the anthem and played part of a hard rock rendition of the anthem on his song, "Yankee Rose" on his 1986 solo album, Eat 'Em and Smile. Steven Tyler also caused some controversy in 2001 (at the Indianapolis 500, to which he later issued a public apology) and again in 2012 (at the AFC Championship Game) with a cappella renditions of the song with changed lyrics.[42] A version of Aerosmith's Joe Perry and Brad Whitford playing part of the song can be heard at the end of their version of "Train Kept A-Rollin'" on the Rockin' the Joint album. The band Boston gave an instrumental rock rendition of the anthem on their Greatest Hits album. The band Crush 40 made a version of the song as opening track from the album Thrill of the Feel (2000).

    In March 2005, a government-sponsored program, the National Anthem Project, was launched after a Harris Interactive poll showed many adults knew neither the lyrics nor the history of the anthem.[43]
    References in film, television, literature

    Several films have their titles taken from the song's lyrics. These include two films titled Dawn's Early Light (2000[44] and 2005);[45] two made-for-TV features titled By Dawn's Early Light (1990[46] and 2000);[47] two films titled So Proudly We Hail (1943[48] and 1990);[49] a feature (1977)[50] and a short (2005)[51] titled Twilight's Last Gleaming; and four films titled Home of the Brave (1949,[52] 1986,[53] 2004,[54] and 2006).[55]
    Customs
    Plaque detailing how the custom of standing during the Anthem came about in Tacoma, Washington, on October 18, 1893, in the Bostwick building

    United States Code, 36 U.S.C. § 301, states that during a rendition of the national anthem, when the flag is displayed, all present except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart; Members of the Armed Forces and veterans who are present and not in uniform may render the military salute; men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold the headdress at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart; and individuals in uniform should give the military salute at the first note of the anthem and maintain that position until the last note; and when the flag is not displayed, all present should face toward the music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed. Military law requires all vehicles on the installation to stop when the song is played and all individuals outside to stand at attention and face the direction of the music and either salute, in uniform, or place the right hand over the heart, if out of uniform. A law passed in 2008 allows military veterans to salute out of uniform, as well.[56][57]

    However, this statutory suggestion does not have any penalty associated with violations. 36 U.S.C. § 301 This behavioral requirement for the national anthem is subject to the same First Amendment controversies that surround the Pledge of Allegiance.[58] For example, Jehovah's Witnesses do not sing the national anthem, though they are taught that standing is an "ethical decision" that individual believers must make based on their "conscience."[59][60][61]
    Protests
    Main article: U.S. national anthem protests
    1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
    Main article: 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute

    The 1968 Olympics Black Power salute was a political demonstration conducted by African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during their medal ceremony at the 1968 Summer Olympics in the Olympic Stadium in Mexico City. After having won gold and bronze medals respectively in the 200 meter running event, they turned on the podium to face their flags, and to hear the American national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Each athlete raised a black-gloved fist, and kept them raised until the anthem had finished. In addition, Smith, Carlos, and Australian silver medalist Peter Norman all wore human rights badges on their jackets. In his autobiography, Silent Gesture, Smith stated that the gesture was not a "Black Power" salute, but a "human rights salute". The event is regarded as one of the most overtly political statements in the history of the modern Olympic Games.[62]
    2016 protests
    Main article: U.S. national anthem protests (2016–present)

    Politically motivated protests of the national anthem began in the National Football League (NFL) after San Francisco 49ers quarterback (QB) Colin Kaepernick sat during the anthem, as opposed to the tradition of standing, before his team's third preseason game of 2016. Kaepernick also sat during the first two preseason games, but he went unnoticed.[63]
    Translations

    As a result of immigration to the United States and the incorporation of non-English speaking people into the country, the lyrics of the song have been translated into other languages. In 1861, it was translated into German.[64] The Library of Congress also has record of a Spanish-language version from 1919.[65] It has since been translated into Hebrew[66] and Yiddish by Jewish immigrants,[67] Latin American Spanish (with one version popularized during immigration reform protests in 2006),[68] French by Acadians of Louisiana,[69] Samoan,[70] and Irish.[71] The third verse of the anthem has also been translated into Latin.[72]

    With regard to the indigenous languages of North America, there are versions in Navajo[73][74][75] and Cherokee.[76]

    [Reply ]

      Re:
      Posted on: 2017-10-02 19:40:51   By: Anonymous
       
      And?

      [Reply ]

        Re:
        Posted on: 2017-10-03 14:28:43   By: Anonymous
         

        did you read what i wrote? I said...

        "The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States of America. The lyrics come from "Defence of Fort M'Henry",[2] a poem written on September 14, 1814, by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British ships of the Royal Navy in Baltimore Harbor during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the large American flag, the Star-Spangled Banner, flying triumphantly above the fort during the American victory.

        The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London. "To Anacreon in Heaven" (or "The Anacreontic Song"), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key's poem and renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", it soon became a well-known American patriotic song. With a range of one octave and one fifth (a semitone more than an octave and a half), it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today.

        "The Star-Spangled Banner" was recognized for official use by the United States Navy in 1889, and by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

        Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. "Hail, Columbia" served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", whose melody is identical to "God Save the Queen", the British national anthem,[3] also served as a de facto anthem.[4] Following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs emerged to compete for popularity at public events, among them "The Star-Spangled Banner", as well as "America the Beautiful".

        Contents

        1 Early history
        1.1 Francis Scott Key's lyrics
        1.2 John Stafford Smith's music
        1.3 National anthem
        2 Lyrics
        2.1 Additional Civil War period lyrics
        2.2 Alternative lyrics
        3 Modern history
        3.1 Performances
        3.2 200th anniversary celebrations
        3.3 Adaptations
        4 References in film, television, literature
        5 Customs
        6 Protests
        6.1 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
        6.2 2016 protests
        7 Translations
        8 Media
        9 See also
        10 References
        11 Further reading
        12 External links
        12.1 Historical audio

        Early history
        Francis Scott Key's lyrics
        Francis Scott Key's original manuscript copy of his "Defence of Fort M'Henry" poem. It is now on display at the Maryland Historical Society.

        On September 3, 1814, following the Burning of Washington and the Raid on Alexandria, Francis Scott Key and John Stuart Skinner set sail from Baltimore aboard the ship HMS Minden, flying a flag of truce on a mission approved by President James Madison. Their objective was to secure an exchange of prisoners, one of whom was Dr. William Beanes, the elderly and popular town physician of Upper Marlboro and a friend of Key's who had been captured in his home. Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers. Key and Skinner boarded the British flagship HMS Tonnant on September 7 and spoke with Major General Robert Ross and Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane over dinner while the two officers discussed war plans. At first, Ross and Cochrane refused to release Beanes, but relented after Key and Skinner showed them letters written by wounded British prisoners praising Beanes and other Americans for their kind treatment.

        Because Key and Skinner had heard details of the plans for the attack on Baltimore, they were held captive until after the battle, first aboard HMS Surprise and later back on HMS Minden. After the bombardment, certain British gunboats attempted to slip past the fort and effect a landing in a cove to the west of it, but they were turned away by fire from nearby Fort Covington, the city's last line of defense.
        An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry

        During the rainy night, Key had witnessed the bombardment and observed that the fort's smaller "storm flag" continued to fly, but once the shell and Congreve rocket[5] barrage had stopped, he would not know how the battle had turned out until dawn. On the morning of September 14, the storm flag had been lowered and the larger flag had been raised.

        During the bombardment, HMS Terror and HMS Meteor provided some of the "bombs bursting in air".
        The 15-star, 15-stripe "Star-Spangled Banner" that inspired the poem

        Key was inspired by the American victory and the sight of the large American flag flying triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, had been made by Mary Young Pickersgill together with other workers in her home on Baltimore's Pratt Street. The flag later came to be known as the Star-Spangled Banner and is today on display in the National Museum of American History, a treasure of the Smithsonian Institution. It was restored in 1914 by Amelia Fowler, and again in 1998 as part of an ongoing conservation program.

        Aboard the ship the next day, Key wrote a poem on the back of a letter he had kept in his pocket. At twilight on September 16, he and Skinner were released in Baltimore. He completed the poem at the Indian Queen Hotel, where he was staying, and titled it "Defence of Fort M'Henry".

        Much of the idea of the poem, including the flag imagery and some of the wording, is derived from an earlier song by Key, also set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song". The song, known as "When the Warrior Returns",[6] was written in honor of Stephen Decatur and Charles Stewart on their return from the First Barbary War.

        Absent elaboration by Francis Scott Key prior to his death in 1843, some have speculated in modern times about the meaning of phrases or verses. According to British historian Robin Blackburn, the words "the hireling and slave" allude to the thousands of ex-slaves in the British ranks organised as the Corps of Colonial Marines, who had been liberated by the British and demanded to be placed in the battle line "where they might expect to meet their former masters."[7] Nevertheless, Professor Mark Clague, a professor of musicology at the University of Michigan, argues that the "middle two verses of Key's lyric vilify the British enemy in the War of 1812" and "in no way glorifies or celebrates slavery."[8] Clague writes that "For Key ... the British mercenaries were scoundrels and the Colonial Marines were traitors who threatened to spark a national insurrection."[8] This harshly anti-British nature of Verse 3 led to its omission in sheet music in World War I, when Britain and the U.S. were allies.[8] Responding to the assertion of writer Jon Schwarz of The Intercept that the song is a "celebration of slavery,"[9] Clague said that: "The reference to slaves is about the use, and in some sense the manipulation, of black Americans to fight for the British, with the promise of freedom. The American forces included African-Americans as well as whites. The term 'freemen,' whose heroism is celebrated in the fourth stanza, would have encompassed both."[10]

        Others suggest that "Key may have intended the phrase as a reference to the British Navy’s practice of impressment (kidnapping sailors and forcing them to fight in defense of the crown), or as a semi-metaphorical slap at the British invading force as a whole (which included a large number of mercenaries)."[11]
        John Stafford Smith's music
        Sheet music version About this sound Play (help·info)
        The memorial to John Stafford Smith in Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England

        Key gave the poem to his brother-in-law Judge Joseph H. Nicholson who saw that the words fit the popular melody "The Anacreontic Song", by English composer John Stafford Smith. This was the official song of the Anacreontic Society, an 18th-century gentlemen's club of amateur musicians in London. Nicholson took the poem to a printer in Baltimore, who anonymously made the first known broadside printing on September 17; of these, two known copies survive.

        On September 20, both the Baltimore Patriot and The American printed the song, with the note "Tune: Anacreon in Heaven". The song quickly became popular, with seventeen newspapers from Georgia to New Hampshire printing it. Soon after, Thomas Carr of the Carr Music Store in Baltimore published the words and music together under the title "The Star Spangled Banner", although it was originally called "Defence of Fort M'Henry". Thomas Carr's arrangement introduced the raised fourth which became the standard deviation from "The Anacreontic Song".[12] The song's popularity increased, and its first public performance took place in October, when Baltimore actor Ferdinand Durang sang it at Captain McCauley's tavern. Washington Irving, then editor of the Analectic Magazine in Philadelphia, reprinted the song in November 1814.

        By the early 20th century, there were various versions of the song in popular use. Seeking a singular, standard version, President Woodrow Wilson tasked the U.S. Bureau of Education with providing that official version. In response, the Bureau enlisted the help of five musicians to agree upon an arrangement. Those musicians were Walter Damrosch, Will Earhart, Arnold J. Gantvoort, Oscar Sonneck and John Philip Sousa. The standardized version that was voted upon by these five musicians premiered at Carnegie Hall on December 5, 1917, in a program that included Edward Elgar's Carillon and Gabriel Pierné's The Children's Crusade. The concert was put on by the Oratorio Society of New York and conducted by Walter Damrosch.[13] An official handwritten version of the final votes of these five men has been found and shows all five men's votes tallied, measure by measure.[14]

        The Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini used an extract of the melody in writing the aria "Dovunque al mondo..." in 1904 for his work Madama Butterfly.
        National anthem
        Commemorative plaque in Washington, D.C. marking the site at 601 Pennsylvania Avenue where "The Star-Spangled Banner" was first publicly sung
        One of two surviving copies of the 1814 broadside printing of the "Defence of Fort M'Henry", a poem that later became the lyrics of "The Star-Spangled Banner", the national anthem of the United States.

        The song gained popularity throughout the 19th century and bands played it during public events, such as July 4th celebrations.

        A plaque displayed at Fort Meade, South Dakota, claims that the idea of making "The Star Spangled Banner" the national anthem began on their parade ground in 1892. Colonel Caleb Carlton, Post Commander, established the tradition that the song be played "at retreat and at the close of parades and concerts." Carlton explained the custom to Governor Sheldon of South Dakota who "promised me that he would try to have the custom established among the state militia." Carlton wrote that after a similar discussion, Secretary of War, Daniel E. Lamont issued an order that it "be played at every Army post every evening at retreat." [15]

        In 1899, the US Navy official adopted "The Star-Spangled Banner".[16] In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson ordered that "The Star-Spangled Banner" be played at military[16] and other appropriate occasions. The playing of the song two years later during the seventh-inning stretch of Game One of the 1918 World Series, and thereafter during each game of the series is often cited as the first instance that the anthem was played at a baseball game,[17] though evidence shows that the "Star-Spangled Banner" was performed as early as 1897 at opening day ceremonies in Philadelphia and then more regularly at the Polo Grounds in New York City beginning in 1898. In any case, the tradition of performing the national anthem before every baseball game began in World War II.[18]

        On April 10, 1918, John Charles Linthicum, U.S. Congressman from Maryland, introduced a bill to officially recognize "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem.[19] The bill did not pass.[19] On April 15, 1929, Linthicum introduced the bill again, his sixth time doing so.[19] On November 3, 1929, Robert Ripley drew a panel in his syndicated cartoon, Ripley's Believe it or Not!, saying "Believe It or Not, America has no national anthem".[20]

        In 1930, Veterans of Foreign Wars started a petition for the United States to officially recognize "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem.[21] Five million people signed the petition.[21] The petition was presented to the United States House Committee on the Judiciary on January 31, 1930.[22] On the same day, Elsie Jorss-Reilley and Grace Evelyn Boudlin sang the song to the Committee to refute the perception that it was too high pitched for a typical person to sing.[23] The Committee voted in favor of sending the bill to the House floor for a vote.[24] The House of Representatives passed the bill later that year.[25] The Senate passed the bill on March 3, 1931.[25] President Herbert Hoover signed the bill on March 4, 1931, officially adopting "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem of the United States of America.[1] As currently codified, the United States Code states that "[t]he composition consisting of the words and music known as the Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem."[26]
        Lyrics

        O say can you see, by the dawn's early light,
        What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
        Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
        O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
        And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
        Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
        O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
        O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

        On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
        Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
        What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
        As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
        Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
        In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
        'Tis the star-spangled banner, O long may it wave
        O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

        And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
        That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
        A home and a country, should leave us no more?
        Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
        No refuge could save the hireling and slave
        From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
        And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave,
        O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

        O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
        Between their loved homes and the war's desolation.
        Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n rescued land
        Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
        Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
        And this be our motto: 'In God is our trust.'
        And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
        O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave![27]

        Cover of sheet music for "The Star-Spangled Banner", transcribed for piano by Ch. Voss, Philadelphia: G. Andre & Co., 1862
        Additional Civil War period lyrics

        In indignation over the start of the American Civil War, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.[28] added a fifth stanza to the song in 1861, which appeared in songbooks of the era.[29]

        When our land is illumined with Liberty's smile,
        If a foe from within strike a blow at her glory,
        Down, down with the traitor that dares to defile
        The flag of her stars and the page of her story!
        By the millions unchained who our birthright have gained,
        We will keep her bright blazon forever unstained!
        And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
        While the land of the free is the home of the brave.

        Alternative lyrics

        In a version hand-written by Francis Scott Key in 1840, the third line reads "Whose bright stars and broad stripes, through the clouds of the fight".[30]
        Modern history
        Main article: Performances and adaptations of The Star-Spangled Banner
        Performances

        This section may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (November 2012)
        Crowd performing the U.S. national anthem before a baseball game at Coors Field

        The song is notoriously difficult for nonprofessionals to sing because of its wide range – a 12th. Humorist Richard Armour referred to the song's difficulty in his book It All Started With Columbus.

        In an attempt to take Baltimore, the British attacked Fort McHenry, which protected the harbor. Bombs were soon bursting in air, rockets were glaring, and all in all it was a moment of great historical interest. During the bombardment, a young lawyer named Francis Off Key [sic] wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner", and when, by the dawn's early light, the British heard it sung, they fled in terror.
        — Richard Armour

        Professional and amateur singers have been known to forget the words, which is one reason the song is sometimes pre-recorded and lip-synced.[citation needed] Other times the issue is avoided by having the performer(s) play the anthem instrumentally instead of singing it. The pre-recording of the anthem has become standard practice at some ballparks, such as Boston's Fenway Park, according to the SABR publication The Fenway Project.[31]

        "The Star-Spangled Banner" is traditionally played at the beginning of public sports events and orchestral concerts in the United States, as well as other public gatherings. The National Hockey League and Major League Soccer both require venues in both the U.S. and Canada to perform both the Canadian and American national anthems at games that involve teams from both countries (with the "away" anthem being performed first) .[32][better source needed] It is also usual for both American and Canadian anthems (done in the same way as the NHL and MLS) to be played at Major League Baseball and National Basketball Association games involving the Toronto Blue Jays and the Toronto Raptors (respectively), the only Canadian teams in those two major U.S. sports leagues, and in All Star Games on the MLB, NBA, and NHL. The Buffalo Sabres of the NHL, which play in a city on the Canada–US border and have a substantial Canadian fan base, play both anthems before all home games regardless of where the visiting team is based.[33]

        Two especially unusual performances of the song took place in the immediate aftermath of the United States September 11 attacks. On September 12, 2001, the Queen broke with tradition and allowed the Band of the Coldstream Guards to perform the anthem at Buckingham Palace, London, at the ceremonial Changing of the Guard, as a gesture of support for Britain's ally.[34] The following day at a St. Paul's Cathedral memorial service, the Queen joined in the singing of the anthem, an unprecedented occurrence.[35]
        200th anniversary celebrations

        The 200th anniversary of the "Star-Spangled Banner" occurred in 2014 with various special events occurring throughout the United States. A particularly significant celebration occurred during the week of September 10–16 in and around Baltimore, Maryland. Highlights included playing of a new arrangement of the anthem arranged by John Williams and participation of President Obama on Defender's Day, September 12, 2014, at Fort McHenry.[36] In addition, the anthem bicentennial included a youth music celebration[37] including the presentation of the National Anthem Bicentennial Youth Challenge winning composition written by Noah Altshuler.
        Adaptations
        See also: The Star Spangled Banner (Whitney Houston recording)
        O'er the ramparts we watch in a 1945 United States Army Air Forces poster

        The first popular music performance of the anthem heard by the mainstream U.S. was by Puerto Rican singer and guitarist José Feliciano. He created a nationwide uproar when he strummed a slow, blues-style rendition of the song[38] at Tiger Stadium in Detroit before game five of the 1968 World Series, between Detroit and St. Louis.[39] This rendition started contemporary "Star-Spangled Banner" controversies. The response from many in the Vietnam War-era U.S. was generally negative. Despite the controversy, Feliciano's performance opened the door for the countless interpretations of the "Star-Spangled Banner" heard in the years since.[40] One week after Feliciano's performance, the anthem was in the news again when American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos lifted controversial raised fists at the 1968 Olympics while the "Star-Spangled Banner" played at a medal ceremony.

        Marvin Gaye gave a soul-influenced performance at the 1983 NBA All-Star Game and Whitney Houston gave a soulful rendition before Super Bowl XXV in 1991, which was released as a single that charted at number 20 in 1991 and number 6 in 2001 (along with José Feliciano, the only times the anthem has been on the Billboard Hot 100). In 1993, Kiss did an instrumental rock version as the closing track on their album, Alive III. Another famous instrumental interpretation is Jimi Hendrix's version, which was a set-list staple from autumn 1968 until his death in September 1970, including a famous rendition at the Woodstock music festival in 1969. Incorporating sonic effects to emphasize the "rockets' red glare", and "bombs bursting in air", it became a late-1960s emblem. Roseanne Barr gave a controversial performance of the anthem at a San Diego Padres baseball game at Jack Murphy Stadium on July 25, 1990. The comedian belted out a screechy rendition of the song, and afterward she attempted a gesture of ball players by spitting and grabbing her crotch as if adjusting a protective cup. The performance offended some, including the sitting U.S. President, George H. W. Bush.[41] Sufjan Stevens has frequently performed the "Star-Spangled Banner" in live sets, replacing the optimism in the end of the first verse with a new coda that alludes to the divisive state of the nation today. David Lee Roth both referenced parts of the anthem and played part of a hard rock rendition of the anthem on his song, "Yankee Rose" on his 1986 solo album, Eat 'Em and Smile. Steven Tyler also caused some controversy in 2001 (at the Indianapolis 500, to which he later issued a public apology) and again in 2012 (at the AFC Championship Game) with a cappella renditions of the song with changed lyrics.[42] A version of Aerosmith's Joe Perry and Brad Whitford playing part of the song can be heard at the end of their version of "Train Kept A-Rollin'" on the Rockin' the Joint album. The band Boston gave an instrumental rock rendition of the anthem on their Greatest Hits album. The band Crush 40 made a version of the song as opening track from the album Thrill of the Feel (2000).

        In March 2005, a government-sponsored program, the National Anthem Project, was launched after a Harris Interactive poll showed many adults knew neither the lyrics nor the history of the anthem.[43]
        References in film, television, literature

        Several films have their titles taken from the song's lyrics. These include two films titled Dawn's Early Light (2000[44] and 2005);[45] two made-for-TV features titled By Dawn's Early Light (1990[46] and 2000);[47] two films titled So Proudly We Hail (1943[48] and 1990);[49] a feature (1977)[50] and a short (2005)[51] titled Twilight's Last Gleaming; and four films titled Home of the Brave (1949,[52] 1986,[53] 2004,[54] and 2006).[55]
        Customs
        Plaque detailing how the custom of standing during the Anthem came about in Tacoma, Washington, on October 18, 1893, in the Bostwick building

        United States Code, 36 U.S.C. § 301, states that during a rendition of the national anthem, when the flag is displayed, all present except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart; Members of the Armed Forces and veterans who are present and not in uniform may render the military salute; men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold the headdress at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart; and individuals in uniform should give the military salute at the first note of the anthem and maintain that position until the last note; and when the flag is not displayed, all present should face toward the music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed. Military law requires all vehicles on the installation to stop when the song is played and all individuals outside to stand at attention and face the direction of the music and either salute, in uniform, or place the right hand over the heart, if out of uniform. A law passed in 2008 allows military veterans to salute out of uniform, as well.[56][57]

        However, this statutory suggestion does not have any penalty associated with violations. 36 U.S.C. § 301 This behavioral requirement for the national anthem is subject to the same First Amendment controversies that surround the Pledge of Allegiance.[58] For example, Jehovah's Witnesses do not sing the national anthem, though they are taught that standing is an "ethical decision" that individual believers must make based on their "conscience."[59][60][61]
        Protests
        Main article: U.S. national anthem protests
        1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
        Main article: 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute

        The 1968 Olympics Black Power salute was a political demonstration conducted by African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during their medal ceremony at the 1968 Summer Olympics in the Olympic Stadium in Mexico City. After having won gold and bronze medals respectively in the 200 meter running event, they turned on the podium to face their flags, and to hear the American national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Each athlete raised a black-gloved fist, and kept them raised until the anthem had finished. In addition, Smith, Carlos, and Australian silver medalist Peter Norman all wore human rights badges on their jackets. In his autobiography, Silent Gesture, Smith stated that the gesture was not a "Black Power" salute, but a "human rights salute". The event is regarded as one of the most overtly political statements in the history of the modern Olympic Games.[62]
        2016 protests
        Main article: U.S. national anthem protests (2016–present)

        Politically motivated protests of the national anthem began in the National Football League (NFL) after San Francisco 49ers quarterback (QB) Colin Kaepernick sat during the anthem, as opposed to the tradition of standing, before his team's third preseason game of 2016. Kaepernick also sat during the first two preseason games, but he went unnoticed.[63]
        Translations

        As a result of immigration to the United States and the incorporation of non-English speaking people into the country, the lyrics of the song have been translated into other languages. In 1861, it was translated into German.[64] The Library of Congress also has record of a Spanish-language version from 1919.[65] It has since been translated into Hebrew[66] and Yiddish by Jewish immigrants,[67] Latin American Spanish (with one version popularized during immigration reform protests in 2006),[68] French by Acadians of Louisiana,[69] Samoan,[70] and Irish.[71] The third verse of the anthem has also been translated into Latin.[72]

        With regard to the indigenous languages of North America, there are versions in Navajo[73][74][75] and Cherokee.[76]


        [Reply ]

          Re:
          Posted on: 2017-10-03 19:23:56   By: Anonymous
           
          You mean copied, not "wrote."

          [Reply ]

            Re:
            Posted on: 2017-10-04 03:37:34   By: Anonymous
             






























































































































































































































































































            did you read what i wrote? I said...

            "The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States of America. The lyrics come from "Defence of Fort M'Henry",[2] a poem written on September 14, 1814, by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British ships of the Royal Navy in Baltimore Harbor during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the large American flag, the Star-Spangled Banner, flying triumphantly above the fort during the American victory.

            The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London. "To Anacreon in Heaven" (or "The Anacreontic Song"), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key's poem and renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", it soon became a well-known American patriotic song. With a range of one octave and one fifth (a semitone more than an octave and a half), it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today.

            "The Star-Spangled Banner" was recognized for official use by the United States Navy in 1889, and by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

            Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. "Hail, Columbia" served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", whose melody is identical to "God Save the Queen", the British national anthem,[3] also served as a de facto anthem.[4] Following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs emerged to compete for popularity at public events, among them "The Star-Spangled Banner", as well as "America the Beautiful".

            Contents

            1 Early history
            1.1 Francis Scott Key's lyrics
            1.2 John Stafford Smith's music
            1.3 National anthem
            2 Lyrics
            2.1 Additional Civil War period lyrics
            2.2 Alternative lyrics
            3 Modern history
            3.1 Performances
            3.2 200th anniversary celebrations
            3.3 Adaptations
            4 References in film, television, literature
            5 Customs
            6 Protests
            6.1 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
            6.2 2016 protests
            7 Translations
            8 Media
            9 See also
            10 References
            11 Further reading
            12 External links
            12.1 Historical audio

            Early history
            Francis Scott Key's lyrics
            Francis Scott Key's original manuscript copy of his "Defence of Fort M'Henry" poem. It is now on display at the Maryland Historical Society.

            On September 3, 1814, following the Burning of Washington and the Raid on Alexandria, Francis Scott Key and John Stuart Skinner set sail from Baltimore aboard the ship HMS Minden, flying a flag of truce on a mission approved by President James Madison. Their objective was to secure an exchange of prisoners, one of whom was Dr. William Beanes, the elderly and popular town physician of Upper Marlboro and a friend of Key's who had been captured in his home. Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers. Key and Skinner boarded the British flagship HMS Tonnant on September 7 and spoke with Major General Robert Ross and Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane over dinner while the two officers discussed war plans. At first, Ross and Cochrane refused to release Beanes, but relented after Key and Skinner showed them letters written by wounded British prisoners praising Beanes and other Americans for their kind treatment.

            Because Key and Skinner had heard details of the plans for the attack on Baltimore, they were held captive until after the battle, first aboard HMS Surprise and later back on HMS Minden. After the bombardment, certain British gunboats attempted to slip past the fort and effect a landing in a cove to the west of it, but they were turned away by fire from nearby Fort Covington, the city's last line of defense.
            An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry

            During the rainy night, Key had witnessed the bombardment and observed that the fort's smaller "storm flag" continued to fly, but once the shell and Congreve rocket[5] barrage had stopped, he would not know how the battle had turned out until dawn. On the morning of September 14, the storm flag had been lowered and the larger flag had been raised.

            During the bombardment, HMS Terror and HMS Meteor provided some of the "bombs bursting in air".
            The 15-star, 15-stripe "Star-Spangled Banner" that inspired the poem

            Key was inspired by the American victory and the sight of the large American flag flying triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, had been made by Mary Young Pickersgill together with other workers in her home on Baltimore's Pratt Street. The flag later came to be known as the Star-Spangled Banner and is today on display in the National Museum of American History, a treasure of the Smithsonian Institution. It was restored in 1914 by Amelia Fowler, and again in 1998 as part of an ongoing conservation program.

            Aboard the ship the next day, Key wrote a poem on the back of a letter he had kept in his pocket. At twilight on September 16, he and Skinner were released in Baltimore. He completed the poem at the Indian Queen Hotel, where he was staying, and titled it "Defence of Fort M'Henry".

            Much of the idea of the poem, including the flag imagery and some of the wording, is derived from an earlier song by Key, also set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song". The song, known as "When the Warrior Returns",[6] was written in honor of Stephen Decatur and Charles Stewart on their return from the First Barbary War.

            Absent elaboration by Francis Scott Key prior to his death in 1843, some have speculated in modern times about the meaning of phrases or verses. According to British historian Robin Blackburn, the words "the hireling and slave" allude to the thousands of ex-slaves in the British ranks organised as the Corps of Colonial Marines, who had been liberated by the British and demanded to be placed in the battle line "where they might expect to meet their former masters."[7] Nevertheless, Professor Mark Clague, a professor of musicology at the University of Michigan, argues that the "middle two verses of Key's lyric vilify the British enemy in the War of 1812" and "in no way glorifies or celebrates slavery."[8] Clague writes that "For Key ... the British mercenaries were scoundrels and the Colonial Marines were traitors who threatened to spark a national insurrection."[8] This harshly anti-British nature of Verse 3 led to its omission in sheet music in World War I, when Britain and the U.S. were allies.[8] Responding to the assertion of writer Jon Schwarz of The Intercept that the song is a "celebration of slavery,"[9] Clague said that: "The reference to slaves is about the use, and in some sense the manipulation, of black Americans to fight for the British, with the promise of freedom. The American forces included African-Americans as well as whites. The term 'freemen,' whose heroism is celebrated in the fourth stanza, would have encompassed both."[10]

            Others suggest that "Key may have intended the phrase as a reference to the British Navy’s practice of impressment (kidnapping sailors and forcing them to fight in defense of the crown), or as a semi-metaphorical slap at the British invading force as a whole (which included a large number of mercenaries)."[11]
            John Stafford Smith's music
            Sheet music version About this sound Play (help·info)
            The memorial to John Stafford Smith in Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England

            Key gave the poem to his brother-in-law Judge Joseph H. Nicholson who saw that the words fit the popular melody "The Anacreontic Song", by English composer John Stafford Smith. This was the official song of the Anacreontic Society, an 18th-century gentlemen's club of amateur musicians in London. Nicholson took the poem to a printer in Baltimore, who anonymously made the first known broadside printing on September 17; of these, two known copies survive.

            On September 20, both the Baltimore Patriot and The American printed the song, with the note "Tune: Anacreon in Heaven". The song quickly became popular, with seventeen newspapers from Georgia to New Hampshire printing it. Soon after, Thomas Carr of the Carr Music Store in Baltimore published the words and music together under the title "The Star Spangled Banner", although it was originally called "Defence of Fort M'Henry". Thomas Carr's arrangement introduced the raised fourth which became the standard deviation from "The Anacreontic Song".[12] The song's popularity increased, and its first public performance took place in October, when Baltimore actor Ferdinand Durang sang it at Captain McCauley's tavern. Washington Irving, then editor of the Analectic Magazine in Philadelphia, reprinted the song in November 1814.

            By the early 20th century, there were various versions of the song in popular use. Seeking a singular, standard version, President Woodrow Wilson tasked the U.S. Bureau of Education with providing that official version. In response, the Bureau enlisted the help of five musicians to agree upon an arrangement. Those musicians were Walter Damrosch, Will Earhart, Arnold J. Gantvoort, Oscar Sonneck and John Philip Sousa. The standardized version that was voted upon by these five musicians premiered at Carnegie Hall on December 5, 1917, in a program that included Edward Elgar's Carillon and Gabriel Pierné's The Children's Crusade. The concert was put on by the Oratorio Society of New York and conducted by Walter Damrosch.[13] An official handwritten version of the final votes of these five men has been found and shows all five men's votes tallied, measure by measure.[14]

            The Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini used an extract of the melody in writing the aria "Dovunque al mondo..." in 1904 for his work Madama Butterfly.
            National anthem
            Commemorative plaque in Washington, D.C. marking the site at 601 Pennsylvania Avenue where "The Star-Spangled Banner" was first publicly sung
            One of two surviving copies of the 1814 broadside printing of the "Defence of Fort M'Henry", a poem that later became the lyrics of "The Star-Spangled Banner", the national anthem of the United States.

            The song gained popularity throughout the 19th century and bands played it during public events, such as July 4th celebrations.

            A plaque displayed at Fort Meade, South Dakota, claims that the idea of making "The Star Spangled Banner" the national anthem began on their parade ground in 1892. Colonel Caleb Carlton, Post Commander, established the tradition that the song be played "at retreat and at the close of parades and concerts." Carlton explained the custom to Governor Sheldon of South Dakota who "promised me that he would try to have the custom established among the state militia." Carlton wrote that after a similar discussion, Secretary of War, Daniel E. Lamont issued an order that it "be played at every Army post every evening at retreat." [15]

            In 1899, the US Navy official adopted "The Star-Spangled Banner".[16] In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson ordered that "The Star-Spangled Banner" be played at military[16] and other appropriate occasions. The playing of the song two years later during the seventh-inning stretch of Game One of the 1918 World Series, and thereafter during each game of the series is often cited as the first instance that the anthem was played at a baseball game,[17] though evidence shows that the "Star-Spangled Banner" was performed as early as 1897 at opening day ceremonies in Philadelphia and then more regularly at the Polo Grounds in New York City beginning in 1898. In any case, the tradition of performing the national anthem before every baseball game began in World War II.[18]

            On April 10, 1918, John Charles Linthicum, U.S. Congressman from Maryland, introduced a bill to officially recognize "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem.[19] The bill did not pass.[19] On April 15, 1929, Linthicum introduced the bill again, his sixth time doing so.[19] On November 3, 1929, Robert Ripley drew a panel in his syndicated cartoon, Ripley's Believe it or Not!, saying "Believe It or Not, America has no national anthem".[20]

            In 1930, Veterans of Foreign Wars started a petition for the United States to officially recognize "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem.[21] Five million people signed the petition.[21] The petition was presented to the United States House Committee on the Judiciary on January 31, 1930.[22] On the same day, Elsie Jorss-Reilley and Grace Evelyn Boudlin sang the song to the Committee to refute the perception that it was too high pitched for a typical person to sing.[23] The Committee voted in favor of sending the bill to the House floor for a vote.[24] The House of Representatives passed the bill later that year.[25] The Senate passed the bill on March 3, 1931.[25] President Herbert Hoover signed the bill on March 4, 1931, officially adopting "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem of the United States of America.[1] As currently codified, the United States Code states that "[t]he composition consisting of the words and music known as the Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem."[26]
            Lyrics

            O say can you see, by the dawn's early light,
            What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
            Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
            O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
            And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
            Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
            O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
            O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

            On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
            Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
            What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
            As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
            Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
            In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
            'Tis the star-spangled banner, O long may it wave
            O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

            And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
            That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
            A home and a country, should leave us no more?
            Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
            No refuge could save the hireling and slave
            From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
            And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave,
            O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

            O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
            Between their loved homes and the war's desolation.
            Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n rescued land
            Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
            Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
            And this be our motto: 'In God is our trust.'
            And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
            O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave![27]

            Cover of sheet music for "The Star-Spangled Banner", transcribed for piano by Ch. Voss, Philadelphia: G. Andre & Co., 1862
            Additional Civil War period lyrics

            In indignation over the start of the American Civil War, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.[28] added a fifth stanza to the song in 1861, which appeared in songbooks of the era.[29]

            When our land is illumined with Liberty's smile,
            If a foe from within strike a blow at her glory,
            Down, down with the traitor that dares to defile
            The flag of her stars and the page of her story!
            By the millions unchained who our birthright have gained,
            We will keep her bright blazon forever unstained!
            And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
            While the land of the free is the home of the brave.

            Alternative lyrics

            In a version hand-written by Francis Scott Key in 1840, the third line reads "Whose bright stars and broad stripes, through the clouds of the fight".[30]
            Modern history
            Main article: Performances and adaptations of The Star-Spangled Banner
            Performances

            This section may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (November 2012)
            Crowd performing the U.S. national anthem before a baseball game at Coors Field

            The song is notoriously difficult for nonprofessionals to sing because of its wide range – a 12th. Humorist Richard Armour referred to the song's difficulty in his book It All Started With Columbus.

            In an attempt to take Baltimore, the British attacked Fort McHenry, which protected the harbor. Bombs were soon bursting in air, rockets were glaring, and all in all it was a moment of great historical interest. During the bombardment, a young lawyer named Francis Off Key [sic] wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner", and when, by the dawn's early light, the British heard it sung, they fled in terror.
            — Richard Armour

            Professional and amateur singers have been known to forget the words, which is one reason the song is sometimes pre-recorded and lip-synced.[citation needed] Other times the issue is avoided by having the performer(s) play the anthem instrumentally instead of singing it. The pre-recording of the anthem has become standard practice at some ballparks, such as Boston's Fenway Park, according to the SABR publication The Fenway Project.[31]

            "The Star-Spangled Banner" is traditionally played at the beginning of public sports events and orchestral concerts in the United States, as well as other public gatherings. The National Hockey League and Major League Soccer both require venues in both the U.S. and Canada to perform both the Canadian and American national anthems at games that involve teams from both countries (with the "away" anthem being performed first) .[32][better source needed] It is also usual for both American and Canadian anthems (done in the same way as the NHL and MLS) to be played at Major League Baseball and National Basketball Association games involving the Toronto Blue Jays and the Toronto Raptors (respectively), the only Canadian teams in those two major U.S. sports leagues, and in All Star Games on the MLB, NBA, and NHL. The Buffalo Sabres of the NHL, which play in a city on the Canada–US border and have a substantial Canadian fan base, play both anthems before all home games regardless of where the visiting team is based.[33]

            Two especially unusual performances of the song took place in the immediate aftermath of the United States September 11 attacks. On September 12, 2001, the Queen broke with tradition and allowed the Band of the Coldstream Guards to perform the anthem at Buckingham Palace, London, at the ceremonial Changing of the Guard, as a gesture of support for Britain's ally.[34] The following day at a St. Paul's Cathedral memorial service, the Queen joined in the singing of the anthem, an unprecedented occurrence.[35]
            200th anniversary celebrations

            The 200th anniversary of the "Star-Spangled Banner" occurred in 2014 with various special events occurring throughout the United States. A particularly significant celebration occurred during the week of September 10–16 in and around Baltimore, Maryland. Highlights included playing of a new arrangement of the anthem arranged by John Williams and participation of President Obama on Defender's Day, September 12, 2014, at Fort McHenry.[36] In addition, the anthem bicentennial included a youth music celebration[37] including the presentation of the National Anthem Bicentennial Youth Challenge winning composition written by Noah Altshuler.
            Adaptations
            See also: The Star Spangled Banner (Whitney Houston recording)
            O'er the ramparts we watch in a 1945 United States Army Air Forces poster

            The first popular music performance of the anthem heard by the mainstream U.S. was by Puerto Rican singer and guitarist José Feliciano. He created a nationwide uproar when he strummed a slow, blues-style rendition of the song[38] at Tiger Stadium in Detroit before game five of the 1968 World Series, between Detroit and St. Louis.[39] This rendition started contemporary "Star-Spangled Banner" controversies. The response from many in the Vietnam War-era U.S. was generally negative. Despite the controversy, Feliciano's performance opened the door for the countless interpretations of the "Star-Spangled Banner" heard in the years since.[40] One week after Feliciano's performance, the anthem was in the news again when American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos lifted controversial raised fists at the 1968 Olympics while the "Star-Spangled Banner" played at a medal ceremony.

            Marvin Gaye gave a soul-influenced performance at the 1983 NBA All-Star Game and Whitney Houston gave a soulful rendition before Super Bowl XXV in 1991, which was released as a single that charted at number 20 in 1991 and number 6 in 2001 (along with José Feliciano, the only times the anthem has been on the Billboard Hot 100). In 1993, Kiss did an instrumental rock version as the closing track on their album, Alive III. Another famous instrumental interpretation is Jimi Hendrix's version, which was a set-list staple from autumn 1968 until his death in September 1970, including a famous rendition at the Woodstock music festival in 1969. Incorporating sonic effects to emphasize the "rockets' red glare", and "bombs bursting in air", it became a late-1960s emblem. Roseanne Barr gave a controversial performance of the anthem at a San Diego Padres baseball game at Jack Murphy Stadium on July 25, 1990. The comedian belted out a screechy rendition of the song, and afterward she attempted a gesture of ball players by spitting and grabbing her crotch as if adjusting a protective cup. The performance offended some, including the sitting U.S. President, George H. W. Bush.[41] Sufjan Stevens has frequently performed the "Star-Spangled Banner" in live sets, replacing the optimism in the end of the first verse with a new coda that alludes to the divisive state of the nation today. David Lee Roth both referenced parts of the anthem and played part of a hard rock rendition of the anthem on his song, "Yankee Rose" on his 1986 solo album, Eat 'Em and Smile. Steven Tyler also caused some controversy in 2001 (at the Indianapolis 500, to which he later issued a public apology) and again in 2012 (at the AFC Championship Game) with a cappella renditions of the song with changed lyrics.[42] A version of Aerosmith's Joe Perry and Brad Whitford playing part of the song can be heard at the end of their version of "Train Kept A-Rollin'" on the Rockin' the Joint album. The band Boston gave an instrumental rock rendition of the anthem on their Greatest Hits album. The band Crush 40 made a version of the song as opening track from the album Thrill of the Feel (2000).

            In March 2005, a government-sponsored program, the National Anthem Project, was launched after a Harris Interactive poll showed many adults knew neither the lyrics nor the history of the anthem.[43]
            References in film, television, literature

            Several films have their titles taken from the song's lyrics. These include two films titled Dawn's Early Light (2000[44] and 2005);[45] two made-for-TV features titled By Dawn's Early Light (1990[46] and 2000);[47] two films titled So Proudly We Hail (1943[48] and 1990);[49] a feature (1977)[50] and a short (2005)[51] titled Twilight's Last Gleaming; and four films titled Home of the Brave (1949,[52] 1986,[53] 2004,[54] and 2006).[55]
            Customs
            Plaque detailing how the custom of standing during the Anthem came about in Tacoma, Washington, on October 18, 1893, in the Bostwick building

            United States Code, 36 U.S.C. § 301, states that during a rendition of the national anthem, when the flag is displayed, all present except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart; Members of the Armed Forces and veterans who are present and not in uniform may render the military salute; men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold the headdress at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart; and individuals in uniform should give the military salute at the first note of the anthem and maintain that position until the last note; and when the flag is not displayed, all present should face toward the music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed. Military law requires all vehicles on the installation to stop when the song is played and all individuals outside to stand at attention and face the direction of the music and either salute, in uniform, or place the right hand over the heart, if out of uniform. A law passed in 2008 allows military veterans to salute out of uniform, as well.[56][57]

            However, this statutory suggestion does not have any penalty associated with violations. 36 U.S.C. § 301 This behavioral requirement for the national anthem is subject to the same First Amendment controversies that surround the Pledge of Allegiance.[58] For example, Jehovah's Witnesses do not sing the national anthem, though they are taught that standing is an "ethical decision" that individual believers must make based on their "conscience."[59][60][61]
            Protests
            Main article: U.S. national anthem protests
            1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
            Main article: 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute

            The 1968 Olympics Black Power salute was a political demonstration conducted by African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during their medal ceremony at the 1968 Summer Olympics in the Olympic Stadium in Mexico City. After having won gold and bronze medals respectively in the 200 meter running event, they turned on the podium to face their flags, and to hear the American national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Each athlete raised a black-gloved fist, and kept them raised until the anthem had finished. In addition, Smith, Carlos, and Australian silver medalist Peter Norman all wore human rights badges on their jackets. In his autobiography, Silent Gesture, Smith stated that the gesture was not a "Black Power" salute, but a "human rights salute". The event is regarded as one of the most overtly political statements in the history of the modern Olympic Games.[62]
            2016 protests
            Main article: U.S. national anthem protests (2016–present)

            Politically motivated protests of the national anthem began in the National Football League (NFL) after San Francisco 49ers quarterback (QB) Colin Kaepernick sat during the anthem, as opposed to the tradition of standing, before his team's third preseason game of 2016. Kaepernick also sat during the first two preseason games, but he went unnoticed.[63]
            Translations

            As a result of immigration to the United States and the incorporation of non-English speaking people into the country, the lyrics of the song have been translated into other languages. In 1861, it was translated into German.[64] The Library of Congress also has record of a Spanish-language version from 1919.[65] It has since been translated into Hebrew[66] and Yiddish by Jewish immigrants,[67] Latin American Spanish (with one version popularized during immigration reform protests in 2006),[68] French by Acadians of Louisiana,[69] Samoan,[70] and Irish.[71] The third verse of the anthem has also been translated into Latin.[72]

            With regard to the indigenous languages of North America, there are versions in Navajo[73][74][75] and Cherokee.[76]


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